Ophthalmic pharmacokinetics research is key to selecting early compounds or chemical structures for further assessment as well as assessing candidates for advancement into clinical trials. CBI offers a variety of preclinical ophthalmic pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and biodistribution study capabilities. Our assessment and analysis modalities are fine-tuned to meet the specific requirements demanded in each targeted area of ophthalmologic pharmacokinetic investigation.

Ocular studies may be done in most species including rodents, dogs, pigs, and especially rabbits.  Rabbits are particularly suited for studies with contact lenses.  Study duration may run from hours to months.  Pharmacodynamic endpoints such as pachymetry, qPCR, IOP, funduscopy, tear formation, SLE, ERGs  may be evaluated during the pharmacokinetic study.

CBI is versed in ocular pharmacokinetic studies employing large and small molecules, antibodies, stem cells, contact lens, punctal plugs, as well as other surgically implanted ocular and intra-ocular devices or drug and device combinations.

Pharmacokinetic studies may be performed in normal eyes or in diseased eyes.  Ocular disease models may include: corneal ulceration, infection, glaucoma, inflammation, diabetes, tumor bearing and custom models.


  • Cream
  • Eye drop
  • Implant
  • Insert
  • Microspheres
  • Ointment or gel
  • Particle
  • Patch
  • Small/large molecule

Additional formulations and radiolabeled studies are also available.

Routes of Administration

  • Topical
  • Intracameral
  • Intrascleral
  • Intrastromal
  • Intravitreal injection
  • Ocular application
  • Periocular injection
  • Retrobulbar
  • Subconjunctival injection
  • Subretinal
  • Subtenon
  • Systemic routes
  • Trans-scleral
  • Implant or device

Additional routes also include contact lens, punctal plus and other implanted devices.

Sample Collection

  • In vivo

    • Aqueous
    • Blood
    • Feces
    • Tears
    • Urine
    • Vitreous
  • Necropsy: microdissection of parts of the eye

    • Globe:
      • Choroid
      • Ciliary body
      • Cornea
      • Eyelids
      • Lens
      • Iris
      • Aqueous, vitreous
      • Retina
      • Sclera
      • Optic nerve
    •  Adnexa:
      • Lacrimal gland
      • Extra ocular muscles
      • Harderian gland
      • Nasal lacrimal duct
      • Palpebral or bulbar conjunctiva