Ocular Models of Pharmacology and Efficacy

Comparative Biosciences, Inc. a premier ocular research CRO, provides a large variety of validated discovery and translational preclinical ophthalmic research studies including efficacy, pharmacology, or in vivo indications. Our ophthalmologic models include macular degeneration, retinopathies, inflammation, dry eye, glaucoma, and degenerative disease. We also have capabilities in ocular device implantation and evaluation. Further, we have capabilities in corneal epithelial and endothelial assessments. CBI scientists are available to discuss these models in more detail. We are also willing to work with our sponsors to develop unique or customized models.

CBI provides special assessment techniques including, OCT (See our OCT video), ERG, gonioscopy, ocular ultrasound, tonometry, laser photocoagulation, slit lamp, funduscopy, retinal angiography, pachymetry, Schirmer and phenol red thread test, hypoxic or hyperoxic chambers.

Check out our presentation on our glaucoma modeling capabilities to learn more!

Validated Efficacy Ophthalmic Models available at CBI include:

Models of Angiogenesis and Macular Degeneration

  • Choroidal neovascularization in mice, rats and pigs (laser-induced)
  • Choroidal neovascularization in rabbits (laser-induced)
  • Oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice and rats
  • VEGF-induced choroidal neovascularization in rabbits
  • Streptozotocin-induced retinopathy
  • Senescent knockout mouse model of macular degeneration

Models of Inflammation

  • Melanin-antigen associated anterior auto-immune uveitis in Lewis rats
  • IRBP-antigen associated posterior inflammation in rodents
  • LPS-induced acute inflammation in rabbits and rodents
  • Ovalbumin-induced immune mediated inflammation in rabbits
  • F48/80-induced acute inflammation in rabbits
  • Corneal infection

Models of Glaucoma

  • Laser-induced episcleral cautery for glaucoma in rats
  • Chymotrypsin-induced glaucoma in rabbits

Models of Dry Eye

  • Concanavalin A-induced dry eye in rabbits
  • Botulinum-induced dry eye in mice
  • Scopolamine-induced dry eye in mice
  • Atropine-induced dry eye in rabbit and mice

Device Implantation

  • Intraocular stents for glaucoma or drug delivery
  • Corneal rings
  • Punctal plugs
  • Artificial lens insertion or removal

No Spectral

Models of Corneal Injury and Endothelial Integrity

  • Corneal surgery
  • Corneal debridement
  • Intraocular implants
  • Corneal wound healing
  • Endothelial damage or disease indications

Models of Corneal Injury, Inflammation and Healing

  • Heptanol-induced corneal erosion in rabbits
  • Suture-induced inflammation in rodents
  • Corneal incision
  • Bacterial or infectious models of ocular inflammation

Models of Ocular Degeneration

  • MNU-induced retinitis pigmentosa
  • Vitreal detachment

Contact Lens Testing

Ocular Implants

  • Intraocular stents
  • Punctal plugs,
  • Drug delivery systems
  • Glaucoma treatment

Hyper Oxygenation

  • Low or high oxygen chambers to induce oxygen-induced retinopathy of prematurity or pulmonary bronchodysplasia

Stem Cell Treatment and Administration

Vitreal Detachment and Vitreal Integrity

Ocular Histopathology and Immuno Histochemistry

  • GLP histopathology for ocular toxicology studies: ocular examination of globe and adenexal structures
  • Histopathologic examination of ocular tissues from research studies
  • Ocular immunohistochemistry
  • Retinal whole mount

Custom or Specialized Models


Ocular Assessments

CBI provides special techniques including, OCT (See our OCT video), ERG, ocular ultrasound, gonioscopy, tonometry, laser photocoagulation, slit lamp, funduscopy, pachymetry, Schirmer test, phenol red thread test, hypoxic or hyperoxic chambers, retinal angiography, device implantation, lens removal or insertion, whole mount preparation, ocular histology and immunohistochemistry and ocular photography.

No Spectral

  • OCT
  • Specular Microscopy for Ocular Endothelium
  • ERG
  • Laser Photocoagulation
  • Ocular Ultrasound
  • Gonioscopy
  • Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy
  • Funduscopy and Angiography
  • Tonometry
  • Pachymetry
  • Hyper or Hypo-oxic Chambers
  • Schirmer and Phenol Red Thread Test
  • Pupil Measurements
  • Histology, Immunohistochemistry, Retinal Whole Mounts

Ocular Routes of Administration

  • Topical
  • Intracameral
  • Intrascleral
  • Intrastromal
  • Intravitreal
  • Periocular
    • Retrobulbar
    • Subconjunctival
    • Subretinal
    • Subtenon
    • Systemic Routes
    • Trans-Scleral
    • Implant or Device or Combination
    • Contact Lens, Punctal Plugs

Formulations for Ocular Efficacy Studies

  • Injectables
  • Topical Creams, Ointments, Gels, Drops
  • Implant and Inserts
  • Microspheres and Particles
  • Patches
  • Gene therapy and Regenerative Medicine
  • Stem Cells
  • Additional Formulations and Radiolabeled Studies are also available.

No Spectral

Histology Images

Laser-IHC Membrane Attack Complex IHC Staining: Retina
Lasered Retina: Rat









Laser-Induced Retinal Plaque in pib







Laser Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in Rat








Brown Norway Rat Examined by OCT







MAA Uveitis in Rat








Normal Rat Eye








OIR Retinal Vascular Proliferation









*Fluorescein Angiography








*Brightfield Angiography: Normal Rat Eye








*Brightfield Angiography: Diabetic Rat Eye








*Retina: Optical Coherence Tomography – OCT









*Images courtesy of Phoenix Research Labs, Pleasanton, California.


Ocular Pharmacology Efficacy Studies and Models

  • Scopolamine-induced dry eye
  • Botulinum-induced dry eye
  • ConA-induced model
  • Glycopyrrolate-induced model
  • Benzalkonium-chloride-induced model
  • Laser-induced glaucoma
  • Corticosteroid-induced
  • Water loading
  • Chymotrypsin

For more information please check out our presentation on our Glaucoma Modeling capabilities.

  • LPS-induced acute uveitis- Check out our presentation!
  • F40 80-induced acute uveitis
  • Albumin-induced conjunctivitis
  • Immune-mediated inflammation
  • Melanin associated antigen-induced anterior uveitis
  • IRBP or S-antigen-induced posterior uveitis

Acute anterior uveitis is a recurrent immune-mediated inflammatory condition involving the iris and ciliary region. Both the ophthalmological presentation and the histologic features are analogous to the human condition.

Imagery of MAA-Induced Anterior Uveitis

grade4Grade 4 inflammation following MAA treatment Brightfield normaleyeNormal eye
brightfieldBrightfield optical-coherence-tomography-octOptical coherence tomography (OCT)


Download the MAA Ocular Presentation
Download the MAA Ocular White Papers
Read MAA Ocular on Dr. Carol Meschter’s Blog
  • Capsaicin-induced
  • Formalin-induced